The visitors were on 270-3 when bad light brought a premature end to proceedings.
Earlier, the England bowlers were made to toil by the combination of Rohit (127) and Cheteshwar Pujara (61), who put on a partnership of 153 for the second wicket, making run-scoring look easy despite seamer-friendly overcast conditions.
Rohit constructed his innings perfectly, resolutely defending outside the off stump and taking runs off anything loose, with Moeen Ali's off-spin often a target. He found an able partner in Pujara, who played with uncharacteristic aggression, hitting nine boundaries.
England threatened a brief comeback after Ollie Robinson removed both Rohit and Pujara in the first over with the second new ball, but skipper Virat Kohli (22 not out) and Ravindra Jadeja (nine not out) steadied the innings.
Put into bat by the hosts on day one, India were bowled out for 191 in their first innings. England, with Ollie Pope top-scoring with 81, responded with 290 all out.
The five-Test series is tied at 1-1.