Pyongyang earlier said it had successfully tested a miniaturised nuclear hydrogen bomb on Wednesday.
Atomic weapon experts and US government agencies, however, cast doubt on the isolated nation's ability to make such an advanced weapon.
The test - the fourth time that North Korea has exploded a nuclear device - unnerved South Korea and Japan and drew world criticism, including from China and Russia, Pyongyang's two main allies.
UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon condemned North Korea's action, calling it "profoundly destabilising for regional security", while US House Speaker Paul Ryan said it "looks like a provocation".
North Korea has been under UN Security Council sanctions since it first tested an atomic device in 2006 and could face additional measures.
The Security Council was holding an emergency meeting to weigh the steps it could take.
The explosion caused an earthquake that was measured by the United States Geological Survey.
Dhaka in a statement reminded Pyongyang that the nuclear test was in contravention to the UN Security Council Resolutions Nos 1718, 1874, 2087 and 2094 and the non-proliferation regime.
It also urged North Korea to refrain from activities that could potentially escalate tension, and to reaffirm its commitment to the maintenance of peace and stability of the region and beyond.
Bangladesh was committed to nuclear non-proliferation and disarmament as a signatory of international treaties, the statement said.